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The following poem is found at p. 212 of the 
Leabar Ga15ála, and p. 44 of the Irish Book 
of Genealogies. Both mss. are in the Royal 
Irish Academy, and were written by Cu- 
coigcríche OCléirig, chief of his name, and 
one of the Four Masters. 

The author of the poem was Corbmacán, 
son of Mael-Brigte, chief poet of the Northern 
Uí Néill, and follower of Niall Glundub, and 
his son Muirchertach. In 913 this "warrior- 
bard " was with Niall when Niall invaded 
Meath and was defeated there at Girley. The 
Annals of Ulster, i., p. 430, give an account 
of this battle, and add : — 

Brón do Grellaig Eillti uair, 
f uaramar cuain 'na taib ; 
asbert Cormacan fri Niall — 
" nach in lecar siar, tiagam sair." 

Sorrow to the chilly Girley, 
we found hosts by its side ; 
Cormacan said to Niall — 
" we are not let go westward, let us go east." 

In the winter of 941-2, Corbmacán was 
one of the thousand braves who marched 
round Ireland. His words, used over forty 
times, " we were a night at " ; " we got " ; "I 
despatched a giolla to Ailech," etc., show that 
he was one of the warriors ; while " Thou 


didst go from us with a thousand heroes," 
" The day thou didst set out from us" (stanzas 
2 and 6), could easily be explained. 

The poem was not composed for about six 
months after the return home (stanza 59), 
that is, not before June or July, 942 ; and as 
no mention is made of Muirchertach's death, 
which occurred on Mid-lent Sunday, the 26th 
of February (4th of the kalends of March), 943, 
the narrative must have been written between 
June, 942, and the 26th of February, 943. The 
poet himself died in 946, according to the Four 

Muirchertach, the hero of the poem, son of 
Niall Glundub who was king of Ireland from 
916 to 919, was Prince of Ailech, and ruled 
over Tirconnell, Tirowen, and other parts of 
Ulster. He was also heir elect, and thirteenth 
cousin, to Donnchad, king of Ireland; and if 
he had kept quiet in 943, he would have 
succeeded that king in 944, as Muirchertach's 
father succeeded Donnchad's father, Flann, 
in 916. 

Flann was a real personage, as his beautiful 
sculptured cross at Clonmacnois shows, with 
the inscription, " Or. do Flaund," Prayer for 
Fland. So was Donnchad, whose cudin, or 
standing cup, was at Clonmacnois in 1129; 
on the cumtach, or cover, of the Book of 
Durrow was the inscription : Oroit acus 
bendacht Choluimb-chille do Fhlaund mac 
Mailsechnaill, do Kig hErenn, lasa ndernad a 
cumdach so : Prayer, and the blessing of 


Columbcille for Fland, son of Maelsechnaill, 
king of Eriu, by whom this cover was made. 
This inscription was seen and copied by 
Roderick O'Flaherty in 1677. 

Muirchertach was as real a personage as 
Fland or Donnchad, though he left no crosses, 
or cudins, or costly book-covers behind him. 
From 921 to 943 he was busy fighting. 

In 921 he defeats the Danes, slaying great 
numbers; in 926 he defeats them, beheading 
200 : and again slays 200 and their leader ; 
in 927 he slays the chief of Ciannachta in 
Derry, and leads a host against the king of 
Ireland, Donnchad; in 929 he marches against 
the same king ; in 932 he defeats and slays 
Earl Torolbh the Dane ; in 933 he is defeated 
by an Irish chief, Fergal son of Domnall, but 
afterwards vanquishes the Danes, securing 200 
or 1200 of their heads, besides prisoners and 
spoils ; in 938 he declares war on his king, 
makes peace, besieges Dublin, and plunders all 
from Dublin to near Athy ; in 939 his palace 
of Ailech is sacked by the Danes, and he is 
taken prisoner, but soon escapes ; in 940 he 
and Donnchad march through Leinster and 
Munster and take hostages ; in 941 he ravages 
Ossory and the Decies, and compels their 
chieftains to submit to him ; he makes an 
expedition to the Hebrides and brings booty 
therefrom ; and in the winter he makes the 
Circuit of Ireland, which is described in this 
poem, and is mentioned in our Annals; in 943, 
on the 26th of February, he is defeated and 


slain near Ardee, at Cluain Cáin, or Clonkeen, 
by Blacair, chief of the Dublin Danes. 

In the Book of Leinster, a ms. of the twelfth 
century (fol. 147 b, a), Flann of the Monastery 
devotes fifteen stanzas to eleven exploits of 
Muirchertach, to which we may add the defeat 
and killing of Cineth Caur, king of Iveleary in 
Meath, and the slaughter of the Ulaid, when 
he carried off 300 of their heads. 

An active warrior like this would be useful 
in South Africa just now. In the tenth 
century he would have been more useful than 
he was if he had confined his attentions to 
the Norsemen, who had slain his father. His 
countrymen, the Ulaid, or the Leinster and 
Munstermen, or even the High-King, Donn- 
chad, could never tell when he would make a 
raid on them, and for twenty-two years were 
anxiously asking the well-known question, In 
file andsin, a Muirchertaig ? Art thou there, M. ? 

It may be said in explanation of his attacks 
on his countrymen that, as Tánaise, or Tánaiste 
of the King of Ireland, he raided the Ulaid, 
the Eoganachta, and Dál gCais and Déisi 
of Munster, the Osraige, Laigin, and Ui 
Cennselaig of Leinster, to force them to 
yield submission and tribute to the King. 
It was the same story in the sixteenth 
century : — 

" Cuir chugam mo chíos, nó muna gcuirir 
Mise Ó Dómnaill." 

" Nil cíos agat orm, agus dá mbiad 

Mise Ó Néill." 


" Send me my tribute, or if you do not send 
it I, OD." 

" I owe you no tribute, and if I did 

I, O'N." 

In 1841 Dr. O'Donovan published this poem 
with translation, extending to thirty-six quarto 
pages, with introductory remarks of twenty - 
two pages, with five pages of appendix and 
index. I do not think it necessary or useful 
to reproduce what he says very fully of the 
career of our hero, as I intend to publish the 
history of the reign of Donnchad (919-944), 
from our various annals, the Book of Leinster, 
the Book of Fenagh, the Cogadh Gaedel re 
Gallaibh, and other sources. This history, 
to which the Poem formed an Appendix, was 
nearly prepared for press eight or nine years 
ago, with the kind help of my pupil, Mr. P. M. 
Mac Sweeney, m.a., grandson of the last of 
our Irish scribes, Mr. O'Longan. As I cannot 
edit the history at present I bring out the 
Poem to supply students with an interesting 
text, which will cost a great deal less than 
O'Donovan's rare volume, will be more ac- 
curate, and will be furnished with a closer 
version and a short vocabulary. 

That great Irish scholar says, at pages 17 
and 18 : — " The translation is strictly and 
rigidly literal ; . . . the spelling has been most 
scrupulously adhered to." I have endeavoured 
to be more strictly literal and to adhere more 
closely to the mss., with what result the reader 
may judge from my notes and vocabulary. 



O'Donovan wrongly prints rigraid for rigrad, 
the nominative case feminine, chinél for chined 
of the ms. When I give translations of words 
by him, which to me are doubtful and cannot 
be verified by reference to glossaries, I put 
them in inverted commas, as ' in the stone- 
built palace of steeds/ our ' strong ' cloaks of 

The collation of the two copies, written by 
the same hand, showed that a word contracted 
in one was written in full in another, as 
1 chin.' and ' chinead \ In such cases I 
printed the uncontracted form. As adaig, 
' night,' is written fully once in the poem of 
the Book of Genealogies, I might have printed 
it in full in every case. 

In O'Clery's Preface there is a description 
of the test to which the courage of the soldiers 
was put. This, says O'Donovan, "was pro- 
bably taken from some ancient romance." It 
certainly was, as it is given at p. 198 of Cath 
' Muige Eath. 

To what O'Donovan says on the history of 
Muirchertach, I may add, from the Cogad 
Gaedel re Gallaib, p. 265, note 9, a passage 
which seems to refer to Muirchertach. Ac- 
cording to the Northern Sagas, Maelkorca, a 
daughter of an Irish King, called Mirkiartan, 
was sold as a slave to Hoskuld, a Norseman, 
She was singularly beautiful ; being ashamed 
of her position, she affected to be deaf and 
dumb, until after the birth of a son, when she 
betrayed herself by being overheard conversing 


with him. When he was eighteen years of 
age, his mother, who had taught him the Irish 
language, sent him to Ireland, giving him a 
gold ring and other things that would be 
recognised as hers. He arrived in Ireland 
before his grandfather's death. He was called 
Olaf Paa, or the Peacock, from his great 
beauty ; he gave his son his own grandfather's 
name, Mirkiartan, or Kiartan. Olaf Paa's 
gifts to Gunnar were — a gold armilla, a cloak 
which had belonged to his grandfather Mir- 
kiartan, and a hound named Sám, which had 
been given to him in Ireland. 

The annotator of the Cogad Gaedel re 
Gallaib says that Maelkorca "was probably the 
daughter of Muirchertach." I think she was. 
If she were captured in 921, when he fought 
the Danes in the North, her son by Hoskuld 
might be eighteen years old before Muircher- 
tach's death. Nay more, I think that there 
would be no disparity of age between Hoskuld 
and a daughter of Muirchertach, as their 
pedigrees show (Cogad Gaedel fri Gallaibh, 
pp. 245, 261, 300). 

1. Niall Caille Cerball. 

I I 

2. Aed Eaferta. 

I I 

3. Niall Glundub Thurida. 

4. Muirchertach Koll. 

5. Maelkorka = Hoskuld. 


Niall Caille was King of Ireland in 832, and 
Cerball was King of Ossory in 841. He was 
younger than Niall, but the female descent 
through Eaferta and Thurida would balance 
that. It might be objected that no Irish woman 
would have Mael as an element of her name. 
But we find the female names, Maeleitig, 
Maelmaire, Maelmeda in the Four Masters. 

It may be interesting to know that Muir- 
chertach's grandson, the comely Olaf Paa (a 
descendant of both Niall Caille and Cerball), 
was third cousin of Ari Marson who discovered 
America in 983, both being descended in the 
same degree from Cerball's daughter Eaferta 
(cf. Cog. Gaedel re G., pp. 300, 301). 

In conclusion, I must remark that the Irish 
title which I have ventured to give to the 
Poem is suggested by the second stanza, 
" dochodais uain móirthimchell Érenn uile." 
Another heading might be Móirthimchell Flatha 
thuc Muirchertach for Eirinn uile. 


University College, Dublin, 
April, 1901. 




A.D. 941. 



The slaughter of the Deisi was done by Cellachán, 
King of Cashel, and by the men of Muma, because of 
their submission to Muirchertach, son of Mall — so that 
two thousand of them fell by him. 

Muirchertach afterwards assembled the (Cenél) Conaill 
and (Cenél) Eogain and the North in general to Ailech, 
and ten hundred were by him selected from the best of 
the warriors of the North. 

It was thus he chose them, that is: — (there was) a 
furious hound at one door-post of the tent which he 
erected on the green, and a man with a broad spear at the 
other jamb. 

The hound flew from the door-post at the person 
who was going over, and the man wounded him with 
the fine stout spear from the other post. 

If the man started off at those two things, he was not 
taken on the hosting ; but if he should not start, he was 
chosen apart. There were not found, however, then 
(such as) dread and great fear did not seize at that trial 
except one thousand weaponed men only. 

He went then (with his) left hand to the sea and first to 
the Ulaid, and stayed three nights with them, and took 
Loingsech their king as hostage with him. 

He went thence to Áth Cliath, and took tributes from 
the Danes, and took Sitric their king as a hostage. 

He went to the Leinstermen and took Lorcán, king of 
the Leinstermen. 

He went from that to the men of Muma and brought 
away Cellachán, king of Cashel, in hostageship. 

He went then to the Connachtmen, and took away 
Conchobar, son of Tadg, king of the Connachtmen, and 
went to Ailech. 

The Cenél nEogain said (to him) to attack the Ui Neill 
of the south and King Donnchad, as it was he that was 
King of Temair. 



Ar na nDéisi do chor la Cellachán ríg Chaisil agus 
la fioru Muman fo daig i naidido do Muircheartacb mac 
Néill co dtorchratar dá mile diob leis. 

Muircheartach iarom do thionól Conaill agus Eogain 
agus an tuaisgirt ar ceana co hOileach con do roegda dech 
cétt lais do gléire gaisgeadach ind fochla. 

Ba bamlaid ro tbog-som iadside .i. brodchú baoi isin 
dara hearsainn don phupall dusfurgaio for an bfai'tcbe 
agus fear co ngae leathan isind earsainn araill. 

No glomad an brodchú asind earsaind frisin ti no 
téigead tairsi agns no gonad an fear don ga caidlide é asind 
earsainn ele. 

Mad dia mbiodgad as an fear riasan deide sin, ni 
beiread-som isin sluaigeadé ; muna sceindead imorro no 
togtha for leitb é. Ni frith tra ann sin ná ro gab uaman 
agus imeagla frisin pbromad sin cenmotbat aoin mile 
armach námá. 

Luid iarum láirh cbli fri fairrgi, agus co bUltu cétus, 
agus ro f(b)ear tri hoidche occo, agus dorat Loingseach 
ar-ri i ngiallnus lais. 

Luid assaide co bAtb Cliath co dtucc cána 6na Gallaib 
agus co dtucc Sitriucc ri Gall i n-aittire. 

Luid co Laigniu agus do ucc Lorcán ri Laigean. 

Luid assaide co fioru Muman co dtuc Ceallachán ri 
Caisil i ngiallnus lais. 

Luid iarom co Connacbta agus tuc Concbobar mac 
T aidg ri Connacbt, agus luid co bOileacb. 

Atbeartsat Cenél n-Eogain Ui Néill an deisceirt 
d'ionnsaigid, agus an ri Donncbad, uair ba beiside ba ri 


"Not so," said Muirchertach, "we ought not (to do) 
it save with his good will. Let our hostages," said 
Muirchertach, " be taken to Temair to Donnchad." 
After that their hostages were taken to Donnchad for 
a while. 

Corbmacán Eicces, who was on this expedition, put 
threads of knowledge on the story when he sang this 


I. — Address to Muirchertach. 

1 Muirchertach, son of noble Niall ! 

thou hast taken the hostages of Inis Fail, 

thou hast put them all in Ailech 

' in the stone- (built) palace of steeds.' 

2 (With) ten hundred warriors thou didst go 

from us, 
of the red-weaponed race of Eogan 
(on) the great circuit of all Eriu, 
yellow-haired Muirchertach ! 

3 Since not alive is comely Cuchulainn, 

the just foster-son of Conchobar, 

it is on thee abides the beauty of his 

son of the son of Aed Finnliath ! 


"Nat^ó," ar Muirchertach, "ní dleagam é acht d'á 
deóin ; berar ar ngéill-ni," ar Muircheartach u coTemraig 
do Donnchad." Do uctlia iarsin na géill athaid do 

Dorat Corbmacán Éicceas, baoi forsan turus-son, snaithiu 
coimgniu for an scél, dia ro chart an aircetal so. 



1 A Mhuirchearktyi riiic Néill nair ! 

ro garJais giallu Innse Fail, 
dusratais uile ind Ailiuch 
isin gríanan gall-groideach. 

2 Deich gcéd laech dochodais uain 

do Cheniul Eógain armruaid 

móirthimcliell tlvenn uile 

a Mhuirchearta^/t rhongrJuide ! 

Uair nach beo Cúc(h)ulanm cain, 
caemdaltan cóir CAowchorJair, 
as ort atá maise a scéith, 
a mic meic Aeda Fhinnléith ! 


4 If living were Fergus son of Eóch 

to whom Medb gave respect and honour, 
he would not be in front of thy sword 
Muirchertach of great steeds ! 

5 If living were Curói of the oars, 

good son ! Muiriucán ! 

obedient would be to thee at his house 

Cúrói son of Daire fair-fist. 

6 The day thou didst go from us eastward, 

into the beautiful province of Conchobar, 
there was many a tear over beauteous 

on the fair-haired womankind of Ailech. 

II. — March through Ulster. 

7 A night we were at Oenach Cros, 

it were not pleasanter to be in Paradise ; 
we brought Loingsech of Line 
from the midst of (that) Land of Pro- 

8 A night we were at Dún Echdach, 

with the white-handed quarrelsome band, 
we brought the King of the Ulaid with us 
(on) the whole great circuit of Eriu. 


Di&madh beo Fergus mac Eoich, 
dia tart Meadb fiad is onóir, 
ní biad ar cmd do chlaidib 
a Mliuirche&rtaigh mórgroidig ! 

Di&madh beo Cúroi na ram, 
a meic maitb, a Mhuiriucán ! 
vóbadh riaracb deit co a toig 
Cúroi mac Dairi dorngloin. 

An lá dochodais uain soir 

i gcoigeadh coerii Conchobair, 
rob imda dér dar grua'á ngrinn 
occ banntracbt O'úigh fbiltíinw. 


Adaig dúin(n) ic Oenacb Cros, 
nír b'aibne beith i Pardós, 
rugsamar Loingseach Line 
do lár Tbíre Thairrngire. 

Adaig dú(in)n ic Dú(i)n Eacbdach 
'con cuiri doitgel detithacb, 
rugsamar rig n-Ulacl lenn 
móirthimcheall uile Érend. 


9 A night we were in the level Magh Rath, 

a night in the bright Glenn Eighe, 

a night at Casán Linne 

it was a hard night of good white (light). 

III. — March through Leinster. 

10 A night at clear Áth Gabla, 

on the morrow over Bregmag 

we found frost on snow 

on the beauteous, fair Mag n-Elta. 

11 A night we were at bonny Ath Cliath, 

it was not handsome towards the Galls ; 
there was a woman in the heavy fortress, 
the son of Niall was her soul, 
she wished that she were outside (the dun), 
though constantly-bad was the night. 

12 A supply of his full store was given 

to Muirchertach son of Niall — 

of bacon, of good and perfect wheat ; 

also was got a blood-debt of red gold. 

13 Joints (of meat), and fine cheese (were given) 

by the very good and very pure Queen, 
and then was given, (a thing) to hear, 
a coloured mantle for each chieftain. 


9 AHaigh dú(in)n im Maig Eath reiil, 

A&aigh i nGlinn Rige rel, 
vAaigh ic Casan Linne, 
rop &&aigh dur deg-gille. 


10 A'daigh ic Áth Gabla glan, 

iar na barach dar Breagmag, 
fuaramar reod for sneac/iía 
for Mag álainw finn Ealta. 

11 Adaig dú(in)n acc Áth Cliath cain, 

nír uo deas ris na Gallaibh ; 
ro baoi bean ism dú(i)n trom, 
rop é mac Néill a h-anam, 
duí/iraccair co mbeith im muig, 
ciar uo bioth-olc ind a,'&aigh. 

12 Tuccad tuilled á lóin léir 

do Mhuircheartach do mac Néill, 
do saill, do chruithnecht chain, chóir 
ior rith fiach fola dercc-óir. 

13 Aisil ocus caisi cain, 

ónd Ríogain ro maith, ro glain, 
ocus tuccadh ria cloisin 
brat datha cech oen toisig. 


14 We took with us Sitric of the treasures, 

to me was confided the guard of him, 
and there was not put on him lock 
or beautiful, hard fetter. 

15 We were a night at Liamain 

it was not a few that were on our pursuit, 
the Lagenians in Glenn Mama outside 
and the comely Ui Cheinnselaigh. 

16 Plotting against us in Glenn Mama 

were the Lagenians very boldly ; 
they ventured not beside us, 
when came the full-bright day. 

17 A night we were in cold Aillenn, 

came the snow from the north-east, 
our houses were, without distinction (of 

our ' strong ' cloaks of hide. 

18 Lorcán son of Bresal of the cows 

we took with us, it is no falsehood ; 
a rough bright fetter was fastened 
on the full-folked High-King of the 

19 A night in Belach Mugna, 

we did not wet our fine long-hair ; 
there was snow for us on the ground 
in noisy Belach Gabráin. 


14 Tuccsom linn Sitnucc na séd, 

riom ro h-erbadh a choimet, 
ocus ní th&vdadh air glas, 
na geimeal áloinn amnas. 

15 Bamar dAaigh occ Liamain, 

nír b'uat(h)ad/i boi ar ár n-iarair, 
Laigin i nGlmd Mama \m maig 
ocus Ui chaim Cheinnselai^. 

16 'Gar gcoccur i nGlind Mama 

do Laignib co ro dana 
ní ro lamraW taeb frinn 
ó than^'c an lá láinimd. 

17 A'áaigh du(in)n ind Ailliim uair 

tánaic an sneachta a n-airtuaid 
rob iat ar dtogi cen roinw 
ar gcochaill chorra ehroco'mn. 

18 Lorcán mac Breasail na mbó 

tucsom lenn, ní hiomargo, 
ro hiadad geimiul garti gel 
ar áirdng líonihar Laigen. 

19 k'daigh i mBelach Múgna, 

nír foilcsiom ar ndeagúrla ; 
ro bai sneachta du(in)n ar lár 
i mBealuch glorach GhaBran. 


IV. — March through Ossory. 

20 A night we were at the clear (river) Plidas ; 

we got food and ale ; 

hogs arrived to us (at) our houses 

from the hospitable Kings of the Osraige. 

21 The reward of their welcome was given to them, 

to the Osraige in the meeting, 

there went not a man of them to his house 

without a goodly gift of raiment. 

22 A night we were in cold Mag Airb 

at the wells of long-lived Briotan, 
a night at the plain of Doire Mór 
where we got our (due) honour. 

V. — March through Munster. 

23 They offered refection and sojourn 

very cheerfully and pleasantly, 

(did) the Déisi, the men of good Munster ; 

their goodly princes came to us. 

24 A night we were in Mag Peimin, 

assuredly, and certainly ; 
a night in Cashel of Munster, 
there a boast was made of the great 
damage (done). 



20 Adaig dú(in)n 'con Flidais find, 

fuaramar biad ocus linn, 
donruachtar tuirc ar dtaige 
ó riograid&fe(i)l Osmige. 

21 Tucc&d/i luach a bfailte daiB, 

dHOsmiglúb isin chomdail, 

ní He&chaidh fear díob da thoig 

gan aiscced n-éloixm n-evmidh. 

22 Ad.aigh dú(in)n i Muig Airl5 uair 

ic tibrataib Briotain buain, 
w&aigh ic clár Doire móir 
fo fuaramar ar n-onóir. 


23 Tairgetar coindm<?acZ/t is cuairt 

co forfaihW* co fíorsuairc 
Déisi íir Muman maithi 
donruachtar a ndeagílaiíÁí. 

24 AHaigh du(in)n i Muig Feimin 

co dearb ocus co deimin, 
&&aigh hiCaisiul Muman, 
anw ro maite an mór-phúdar. 


25 There appeared three brave battalions 

active, red, very great, 

and each saw the other 

in the middle of the great plain ; 

26 We threw off our cloaks 

as the people of a good King should throw 

(them off), 
the clear, bright Muirchertach was (then) 
playing his chess. 

27 The hardy Cellachán said. 

(and it would be for us a victory). 
" men of Munster with renown ! 
' oppose ■ not the race of Eogan. 

28. " Easier (it is) that I go with them 

than our being put all to a battle : 
they will kill a man for each man (of theirs) 
the honourable people of Muirchertach." 

29 We took with us Cellachán the just ; 

he got his (due) honour : 

a ring of fifteen ounces on his hand, 

a chain of iron about his shapely leg 

30 A night we were all together 

in the plain of Ui Cairpri ; 

(this) was our shelter, this was our wood, 

(to wit) our < strong ' cloaks of hide. 


25 Tuarccabtha tri cath, croda, 

diana, ctarcca, dimóra 

co %-aca each aroile 

ar cheartlár an mór-moige. 

26 Ro laisem ar gcochla dinn, 

mar no lad muintear deigríg, 
ro baoi Muircheartach glan, gle 
oc imbirt a fidchille. 

27 AtrubaiVt Ceallachan crwaid, 

ocus ro badh du(in)n a buaid, 
11 aiiru Muman co mbl&idh 
ná etruiccid clawn Eogain." 

28 Assa meisi do dul leo 

indas ar gcor uile i ngleo, 
muirbfit dume ce&ch fir 
muinter mm&ach Muircbeartai^. 

29 Tuccsom linn Ceallacbán Cóir 

fo uarastar a onóir 

fail cóig n-ungae ndécc fo láim 

id iairn im a chois chomláin. 

30 AHaigh dun uile immalle 

i machaire Ua gCairpre, 

ro be ar gclithar, ro be ar gcoill 

ar gcochaill corra crocoinn. 


31 Music we had on plain and in tent, 

listening to the 'strains,' 

it seemed to us, there was heavy thunder 

at the rattling of our hard cloaks. 

32 A night at bare Cell Da-Lua ; 

we set our face towards Leth Cuinn, 
a night at ' strong ' Cenn Corad, 
a night at azure-watered Luimnech. 

33 A night we were at Ath Caille 

on the very brink of the Shannon ; 

I found not, after coming from my house 

a road like the Cretsalach. 

VI. — March through Connacht. 

34 A night at Sliab Suidi ind Big, 

we all cast from us our anxiety ; 
we got not our warming 
in fair chilly Mag Adair. 

35 A night we were at bright Loch Eiach, 

(we and) Muirchertach son of Niall, 

a night in Meáda Seola 

was Muirchertach the ever-lively. 


31 Ceol agoinn i moig 'si toig 

coistecht risin gcaissearna^, 
andar lerm ba torami trom 
i sithled na gcruadchochall. 

32 AcLaigh i gCill Da-Lua luim, 

tugsom &gaid íri Leth Cuinn, 
Sbdiaigh i C'mn Choral chass, 
adaig il-Luimneach lion^glas. 

83 AHaigh dun ic Ath Caille 

íor cearíBru na Sinainwe ; 
ní fuarus, ar techt óm' thoig, 
conair mar an Gretsalaig/i. 


34 Aclaigh ic SléB Suide an Rig 

ro laiseam dfrm uile ar sním ; 
ní fuaram^r ar ngomdh 
i Muig áloinn uar Adar. 

35 Ailaigh dun ic Loch Eiach rél 

do Muircheartac/i do mac Néll, 

&(laigh i Meáda Seola 

do Mhuircheartacft BithBeóda. 



36 We found at Ath mac Cing 

the Kings of Connacht awaiting us ; 
silver and gold were given 
to the comely great and many-coloured 

37. Conchobar son of Tadg, the bull-like 

the very brave High-King of Connacht, 
came with us without bright fetter 
into the green palace of Ailech. 

38 A night in green Mag n-Ái, 

another night at Bath Guaire ; 
pleasant the night, I will not conceal (it) 
(in which) we were at Srath ind firéin. 

39 A night we were at Súil daim déin, 

(we and) Muirchertach son of Niall, 

(it) did not destroy us 

our excellence in the conflict. 

VII. — March through Donegal. 

40 A night we were at Ath Senaig 

without treachery and without disgrace, 
a dinner of a hundred for every twenty 

to be distributed, 
from the brave Cenél Conaill. 


36 Fuaromor ic Ath mac Cing 

icíogmidh Chonn&cht ar ar gcinw, 

do mtadh arccaí is ór 

don chuire Builiáh breacmor. 

37 Oowchobar mac Taiclg tarbda, 

áirdrí Connacht comchalma, 
taim'c len^ cen geimeal glain 
i nGnanan uaine Oiligh. 

88 A'áaigh i Maig Ai uaine, 

db'&aigh oile ic Raith Guaire ; 
aibmd ind a>daigh, ní chél, 
bamar ic Srath ind firén. 

89 Adaigh dun ic Suil daim dein 

do Mhuircheartach do mac Néill 

ocus ní ro trasccair oirn 

ar ffeabus immon ccomloinw. 


40 Adaigh dun ic Ath Seanaig 

cen meing ocus cen meabail ; 
proind cétt cech fichet ria voinn 
6 Chenél calma Conoill. 


41 A night we were in lasting Bernas, 

and it was delightful to our army ; 

a night we were before coming to our home 

at Lecc ingine Laidig. 

42 A night we were in green Mag Glas 

on the morrow (we went) to drink the 

there was noise, without sorrow, with 

in thy great house, Muirchertach ! 

43 From green Lochán na n-ech 

I sent a page to Ailech 

to say to Dub-daire the pleasant 

to send women into the rushes. 

VIII. — Colloquy of Dubdaire and the Gille. 

44 Gille. " Rise up, Dubdaire ! 

here is a company (coming) to thy house, 
serve each of them 
asaHigh-Kingwouldbe ministered unto." 

45 D. "Say to me what company comes hither 

into lordly Ailech Frigrenn ; 

tell me, fair boy ! 

that I may perform their service." 


41 k&aigh dun i mBearnus buan, 

ocus rop aibind diar sluag ; 
vAaigh dún ria techt diar ttig 
oc Licc ingeine Laidig. 

42 kclaigh dun im Maig Glas gorm, 

ar na barach d'ól na ccorn, 

ro Bai glór, cen brón, co mblaidh 

it' taig móir, a Mhuircheartaig. 

43 Ó Lochan uane na n-each 

ro las gilla co hAileach, 
dia rad ri Duti ndaire ndail 
mná do chur isin luachair. 


44 Gilla. " éirig suas, a Dhubdaire! 

dam sonw dochum do thaige, 
friothail cech nduine dib 
mar no fnothailti áirdrzg." 

45 Dubdaire. " Abair frim cia dam ticc anw 

ind. Aileach icxxivech Rigreanw ; 

innis dam, a gille gil, 

co wdearnar a friothailim. ,, 


46. G. " The Kings of Eriu in fetters 

together with the son of virulent Niall 
ten hundreds of warriors of gallant prowess, 
of the fierce and fair Cenél Eogain. 

47 D. " Content was the Son of Almighty God 

with Muirchertach son of Niall ; 
may there be a long time in strong com- 
mand of Banba 
to the descendant of the most valiant 
Niall Frossach." 

IX. — The Feast in Ailech. 

48 The Kings were ministered unto 

in a way that was agreeable to the race 

of Niall, 
without sorrow, without gloom in the house, 
as if they were clerics. 

49 Ten score hogs — clean work — 

ten score cows, two hundred oxen, 
were struck down in Ailech of the bands 
for Muirchertach of the great fetters. 

50 Three-score vats of malt, 

(there were) many from whom they 

banished churlishness, 
with sufficiency of cheering mead, 
(were given) by the great-minded Muir- 


46 Gilla. " Eígrad ÍZieann i ngeimliB 

maille ra mac Né(i)ll neiúmigh, 
deich cet laech i ng&isccedh grixm 
do Ohenél Eogam eg-fmd." 

47 Eobo bmáeach Mac Dé déin 

do Mhuircheartach do mac Né(i)ll, 
rob cian i treisi Bhanba 
d'ua Néll Frossaigh ro chalma. 


48 Eo friothailti an ríograd ré(i)l, 

ionmis rop ail do chloinw Né(i)ll, 
cen brón cen duBa 'san tig 
immar no beittís cléirig. 

49 Deich ffichit muc, monar nglan, 

deich ffichit bó, da chéd dam, 
ro tuaircthi ind Oiliuch eclneach 
do Mhuiicheartach móivgeimleach 

50 Trí fichitt daftach do gnátt, 

sochaidhe dar scaoilseat grtácc, 
co Mwrthain do miocl meadrach 
do Mhuircheartach móirmeanmnach. 


51 Two vats and ten of limpid mead 

were given to the Kings of Eriu 

a dinner of hundreds of each (kind of) 

food, nobly, 
(was given) generously to them by the 


X. — Praise of Dubdaire and her Mother. 

52 Sadb of Belat Gabráin of the glenns 

was distinguished over the women of Eriu 
as to chastity, for sense without sin, 
for giving and bestowal. 

58 The blessing of every man with a tongue 

on the good and great daughter of Cellach ; 
and the blessing of pure and radiant Christ 
on the daughter of the King of Osraige. 

54 I have not seen (in) South or North 

all through red-weaponed Eriu, 
I have not found (in) West or East, 
a woman like thy wife, Muirchertach ! 

55 As long as were the battle Kings 

in lordly Ailech Frigrend 

they had not coigny from any other 

save the good and dear Dubdaire. 


51 Dá clafóaig décc do miod meani 
tuccadh do xíogicaidJi Erean^, 
promd céd di cecJi biad co mblaidh 
ind aisccid doib ón Ríogam. 

52 Sadb Bealaí^rA. Gabráin na ngleann 

ro áeledh do mnáib Éreann 
im geanus, im ceill gan chol, 
im thabairt, im t(h)ioclnacol. 

53 Beandac7ií cech fir co tengaid 

for ingin maith móir Chealk%, 
ocus beand^c/ií Christ gloin-gle 
for ingin rig Osraige. 

54 Nocha nfaca theas no thuaid 

uile fón Erinn armruaid, 

nocha níuarus thiar no thoir 

bean mar do ihnaoi, a Mhmrchearte'^A ! 

55 Cén boi an líogradh na ndrenn 

ind Ailiuch ruireach Rigrend 
gan choiimmeadh tor neach oile 
acht for Dub ndail ndagcloire. 


56 Dubdaire, it is not better (that) 

another warrior (than I) should be 

thankful ; 
God and man (are well pleased) at the house 
of DuMaire descendant of Tigernach. 

57 The reward of her plenteous ale was given 

to beloved, modest-faced DuMaire, 
from the plunder of cold Dal Araide 
in gold, in oxen and in good cows : — 

58 Twenty cows for every cow (that she gave), 

twenty oxen for every one ox, 

twenty hogs for every hog — it was a 

favour — 
(were given) toDuBdaire by Muirchertach. 

XI. — The Kings are led to Tara. 

59 At the end of five months — a noble work — 

the Kings were let out on the plain 

to be brought to Donnchad son of Flann 

the great and comely King of Meath. 

60 M. " There are for thee the brilliant royal- 

Said Muircherdach son of Niall 
" for thou art, Donnchad, lam sure, 
the man that is best of the men of Eriu." 


56 A Dubdoire nochon nfearr 

occlach oile buideach, 
Dia is duine as a toig 
Dubdoire ua Tigearnoig. 

57 Tuctha log a leanna lain 

do Dhubdoire dil, dreach-nair 
do chreich Dal Amide uair, 
d'ór, do damaib, do deagbuaib, 

58 Fiche bó in cech mboin co mblad, 

fiche dam in cech n-aen dam, 
fiche muc cech muic, ba rath 
do DuMoire ó Mhuircheartach. 


59 I ccionn choice mios, monar nglan, 

ro leicthe an riogmdh for mag, 

dia mbrith do Donnchad mac Floinw, 

do Rig Mide mór, áloinw. 

60 M. " Assut dut an TÍogradh réil," 

ar Miiircheartach, ar mac Néill ; 
" óir as tu a Dhonnchaid, dearb liom, 
duine as fearr d'fearaib 'Exeann." 


61 D. " Thou art better now, King ! 

with thee no one alive can compare 
it is thou didst bring the noble kings, 
Muirchertach, great son of Niall !" 

62 M. " Thou art better, beloved Donnchad 

than any man in our land ; 

whoever is in strong Temair, 

it is he that is High-King over Erin." 

68. D. " Receive my blessing, nobly, 

son of Niall Black-knee, bright and pure, 
be it by thee Temair may be taken 
Prince of the bright Loch Feabail ! 

64 " May thy race possess Mag Breg, 

may they possess white-sided Temair, 
may thy hostages of the Goidil be in thy 

good son, Muirchertach !" 


61 D. " As fearr tusa anossa, a Eí! 

rit nocha geb neach i ccri, 

as tu tucc an ríogmidh ré(i)l 

a Mhuircheartí%/& mic móir Ne(i)ll. ,, 

62 M. " As fearr thusa, aDhonnchtói/i dail 

indas duine 'nar ttalmain ; 
cipe bes hi tT e&mmigh teinn 
as é as Airdrí for Érnm." 

63 Beir mo beandachtain co mbloid 

a meic Néill Ghlúnduib gle-gloin ! 
corop uait gabthar Teamair, 
a flaith Locha finw Feabail ! 

64 Corop lat' chined Mag mBreag 

corop leo Teamair thoibgeal, 
co mbet ge(i)ll Goidel it' taig, 
a riiic maith, a Mhuirche&rtazgh ! 

A Mhmvcheartaiffh. 

( 42 ) 

Note to p. lb, from Cath Maige Eath, p. 198. 

Is arm. sin ro mid ocus ro muaidnig Iarla aingit 
etrocar Ulad, .i. Congal Claen, comairli duaibsech, 
demnacda, d'ismgad engnuma Ulad ocus allmarach, do 
thestugud a tapaid ocus a trenlamaig re cur in catha, nach 
gabad ocus nach geimliged dib acbt each drem ar a 
n-aireochad élang, ré túr ocus re testugud a tapaid. 
Conad e aireag uarastar sum orro re fromad cacha fir 
Ulltaig ocus d'fis allmarach .i. each fa seach uaithib da 
innsaigid i prim-istad a puibli. Ocus fer fuachda, 
forgranna co n-dub-ga nduaibsech co cind coidlige 
cruaid lethair in aicill forgaim is indara h-ursaind ; 
ocus ferglonn former fir-granda fearchon is in ursaind ele 
co n-urnasc imremar iarnaidi air, i cengal do chuailli 
cothaigthi congbala. Buachaill brogda ic a brostad 'na 
certfarad re chose no chomgresacht. Ocus in tan ticfad 
Ulltach no allmarach eturru in inad a aimsigthi, do bered 
fer in cruad-gai chind choidlige forgum air is in dara 
h-ursaind ; ocus clised in cu chuigi fa'n cuma cetna as 
in ursaind eli. Da filled no da forscáthaige in fer sin re 
fuirmed fir in forgaim ocus re cruad-gloim in chon ic 
ur-nochtad a fiacal ocus ic comoslugud a charpait d' á 
thescad no da thren-gabail, do gabtha ocus do geimligthea 
gan fuirech e-sein. Ocus diu in té ticfad gan rosacht 
gan robidgad a h-uathbásaib in airig sin do leigthea gan 

Acht chena is e rob airigid urgabala re each is in 
cleas sin Dubdiad Drai. Doig is re prim-fegi na puipli 
ro fostad ocus ro h-urgabad eséin ic dola ar dibla 
ocus ar dasacht re h-uathbas in forgaim sin. Cid tracht 
ni frith fer gan élang no gan etirlen co Ferdomun Fuilech, 
mac Imomain, uair ba h-esein con ciuchail in coin tre 

( 43 ) 

n-a carpait gur comroind a craidi d'á claidem catha 'n-a 
cliab ocus ro ort fer in forgaim is in ursaind eli 'na cert- 
degaid gan caigill d'a craisig. Ocus tucustar tri beimenna 
bidbanais gan cbaigill gan cbomfégad do Congal, do digail 
a dobeart ar Ulltaib ocus ar allmarachaib gur marbustar 
Gáir Gann, mac Elair Deirg, a dalta, ba fiadnaisi do. 

O'Donovan's Translation. 

It was then the malicious and merciless Earl of Ulster, 
that is Congal Claen, ruminated (on) and imagined a dire, 
demoniacal design to test the valour of the Ulaid and the 
foreigners, to try their activity and might at arms before 
fighting the battle, in order that none of them might be 
restrained or fettered excepting only such as would betray 
an inclination to fight on their courage being tested and 
tried. So the scheme he adopted for proving every true 
Ultonian and for testing every foreigner was this — each 
of them, respectively, was to go into him into the 
principal apartment of his tent, while a fierce and terrible 
man, with a black fearful javelin, with a hard leather 
head, in readiness to thrust, was at the one jamb (of the 
door), and a furious, swift, fearful hound at the other 
jamb, having on him a thick iron collar fastened to a 
strong pole to keep him ; a sturdy boy beside him to 
check or incite him. And when an Ultonian or foreigner 
would come between them where he could be attacked, 
the man with the hard leather-headed javelin was to make 
a thrust at him at the one jamb, and the hound, in like 
manner, to spring at him from the other jamb. Should 
that man turn back or take flight at the attack of the man 
with the spear, or at the dire onset of the hound exposing 
his teeth, and extending his jaws to tear him or hold him 
fast, he was taken and fettered without delay. And he, 

( 44 ) 

however, who would without panic or dismay come out 
from the horrors of that trial, was left without restraint. 
The first man, whose courage was, before all, tested by 
this plan, was Dubdiad the druid. For he was stopped 
and taken on the highest ridgepole of the tent, having 
been panic-stricken and driven to distraction at the horror 
of that attack. In short, there was not found a man who 
did not shrink and fly from it except Ferdomun the 
Bloody, son of Iomaman ; for it was he that cleft the 
hound's jaws and cut in twain its heart in its breast with 
his sword of battle, and immediately after slew without 
mercy with his lance the man of the spear at the other 
jamb. And he made three hostile blows at Congal with- 
out mercy or consideration, to revenge upon him his evil 
treatment of the Ultonians and foreigners, and he slew 
Gáir, son of Elar the Red, his foster-son, in his presence. 



(The numbers refer to the stanzas.) 

As in the text I did not depart from the mss., I suggest 
some emendations here : — 

Corpmacán, Máile-Brígte. 

1. náir, Fail, grianan, Aileach, gall-groideach. 

4. Róich, Meadb (I have not met Médb with accent). 

5. Cúroí or Cúrói, rárh, Mhuiriucán. 7. dún, dúin, 
in mss. ; perhaps I should have left it so everywhere, 
though in Old Irish two w's are nearly always found : 
dínn, dunn ; cf. linn (stanza 14). 9. réid, réil, 
deggile. 11. dúthraccair. 14. choimét. 15. nlr 
b'uathad boi ár n-iarair, or nirb uath boi ar ár n-iarair — 
the line is a syllable too long. 16. Máma, dána. 
18. iomargó (?), áirdríg. 19. Ghabrán for Ghabráin. 
21. dáib, corhdáil. 23. foríáilidh. 25. cróda, 
26. dínn. 27. Ceallachán. 30. chorra chrocainn? 
perhaps, as in stanza 17. 32. Cinn Coradb . 
33. Ath Caille, Cretsalaig. 34. dinn. 35. Sedla. 
36. Áth. builid ; O'Don. 's builig would be dat. feminine, 
whereas cuire breacmor is dat. masc. 39. déin. 
44. friothail cech ndagduine dib, as the line is short by a 
syllable ; for no friothailti O'Don. has do friothailti. 

51. For Eiogain the mss. seem to have riograid. 

52. Céill. 54. For fón íírinn one ms. has fond Érinn. 

55. O'Don. 's Cén robaoi an riagrad na ndreann is a syl- 
lable too long, which might be corrected by omitting < an. 5 

56. O'Don. 's " Dubdoire nochan fearr" is a syllable 
short. Eead perhaps, "occlach oile beith buideach." 

57. log, lain, dreachnair. 59. choice míos, riograd. 
60. a Dhonnchad(P). 61. ccri. 62. For indás duine 



'narthalmain, one ms. has indas cech duine ar lalmain ; 
^irdrí. 64. For corop, one ms. has corab ; chined in 
full in one ms. ; O'Don. prints chinél; leu for leo in 
one ms. 


{The numbers refer to the stanzas.) 

Aeda Fhinnléith, 3, gs., Muirchertach' s grandfather, 
King of Ireland, 863-879. 

Cellachán, 27, King of Cashel and Munster, died in 954 ; 
from him descend the O'Callaghans and Mac Carthys ; 
the last chief of the O'Callaghans was Edmund 
O'Callaghan of Kilgorey, Co. Clare, grandfather of 
Father Edmund O'Reilly, S. J., and Mr. Edmund 
Dease of Rath, and the late Earl of Kenmare. 

Conchobor, son of Nessa or Ness, 3 ; began to reign in 
Ulster circ. a.d. 30. 

Conchobar, son of Tadg, 37 ; Tadg was King of Connacht 
till 954 ; Conchobar till 972, from him descend the 
0' Conors of Connacht. 

Cu-Chulainn, 3, temp. Conchobor son of Ness. 

Cúrói or Cúroí, son of Daire, 5 ; of the Clanna Dedad of 
West Munster ; he vanquished Cuchulainn in fair fight, 
but was treacherously slain by him afterwards. 

Donnchad, son of Flann, 59 ; King of Ireland, 919-944 ; 
Muirchertach was his Tánaise or Tánaiste (i.e. his 
second), and was to succeed him ; Donnchad was of 
Ui Néill of Meath : the vocative of his name is given 
as Donnchaid, 62 ; but as the genitive is Donnchada, 
the voc. should be Donnchad, unless the nominative is 
Donnchaid like Diarmaid, g. Diarmada. 

Dubdaire, 43, 53; wife of Muirchertach, and, it seems, 
daughter of the King of Ossory. 


Fergus, son of Koeg or Róich, 4 ; an Ulster hero of the 
time of Cuchulaind and Medb. 

Frigrenn, gs., 55, or Eigreann, 45 ; he is said to have 
built the palace of Ailech ; the F becoming Fh in 
certain cases would disappear. 

Loingsech, 7 ; chief of Mag Line near Loch Neagh in 941. 

Lorcán, son of Bresal, 18 ; King of Leinster in 941. 

Medb, 4 ; famous and warlike Queen of Connacht about 
the beginning of the Christian era ; the enemy of 
Conchobor mac Nessa. 

Muirchertach, 1, et passim, slain in 943 ; from his 
father, Niall Glundub, the O'Neills derive their name 
and descent ; Muirchertach is not written in full in 
either of the mss. 

a Muiriucán, 5 ; a name of endearing or fond address, 
used only in the vocative case. O'Don. renders it by 
Mariner ! It is an alias for a Muirchertach, as * ' a 
Chucuc, a Chúcán, a Chúcucuc, a Chucucán " addressed 
to Cuchulaind, in LL. 59, LU. 77£, LL. 100*, 76b. 
Zimmer discusses these i Kosenamen ' in Zeitschr. zur 
Vergl. Sprachf., vol. 32, pp. 162-197. It seems one of 
those artificial disguises of words by dichnedoxformolad, 
such as Choirp for Choipri mentioned by Stokes in 
Rev. Celt. xx. 33. Though such words are used 
generally in the voc. case, a word very like them is 
in the genitive : Cerball mac Muricáin: Stokes' " Tri- 
partite Life," p. 522, and " Annals of Ulster," I., 
p. 416. 

Niall Frossach, 47 ; King of Ireland in 763, became a 
monk at lona in 770, died in 778 ; he was ancestor of 

Niall Glun-dub (or Black-knee), 1 ; father of Muircher- 
tach, and King of Ireland, 916-919. 

Sadb of Belach Gabráin, 52 ; she was from Ossory, and 
seems to be Dubdaire's mother. 

Sitriucc, 14 ; a wealthy Dane of Dublin. 



(A refers to O'Clery's Preface; B to the extract from 
Cath Muige Rath ; the numbers to the stanzas,) 

Ailiuch, 1, ds. ; Ailech, the palace of the kings of the 
northern Ui N éill, on a lofty hill in Inishowen 6 miles 
N.W. of Londonderry ; gs. Oilig, 6 ; called Ailech 
Frigrenn and A. Rigrenn, 55, 45, from its "builder who 
lived in the third century. 

Aillinn, 17; dsf, of Aillenn; now Dún Aillinne, 600 
feet high, 5 miles east of the town of Kildare, and to the 
north of Old Kilcullen, a seat of the Kings of Leinster, 
the largest fort in Ireland after Emain Macha. It 
should not he confounded with the Hill of Allen (i.e. 
Almu) which is 5 miles north of the town of Kildare. 

Áth Caille, 33 ; ' Ford of the wood,' on the Shannon» 
between Limerick and Cratloe as appears from the 

Áth Cliath, 11; Dublin, south of Mag-n-Elta ; called 
Ath Cliath Cúalann and A'th Cliath Duihlinne in 
Dindsenchus, Rev. Celt, xvi., 284. 

Ath nGabla, 10 ; a ford north of Knowth, in Co. Meath. 
" Is de ata Alb nGabla . i. oc Beloch caille móire fri 
Cnogha atuaid, LU. 58a ; O'Don. says it was on the 
Boyne near Knowth, and refers to LL. 45« and L. Lee, 

Ath mac Cing, 36 ; now Headford in the bar. of Clare, 
Co. Galway ; still called by the natives Ath Cinn. 

Ath Senaig, 40 ; (Senach's Ford), now called Bel A'tha 
Seanaig, or the mouth of Senach's ford, locally called 
Ballyshanny, incorrectly in books and atlases, " Bally- 
shannon " ; in Co. Donegal. 

Banha, 47 ; gs., a name for Ireland. 


Belach Gabráin, 19, 52 ; in east of Co. Kilkenny, and 
south of Belach Mugna, now Gowran ; an older form is in 
the Book of Armagh: ds. Belut Gabráin, this older 
form is also in the Annals of Ulster, I. 368. It means 
Gabrán's Pass ; it is also called simply Gabián : ó 
Ghabrán col-Luimnech, from Gowran to Limerick, 
Annals of Ulster, I. 420. 

Belach Múgna, 19 ; now Ballaghmoon, inKildare, 2 miles 
north of the town of Carlo w. 

Bernus, dsm. orneut. (i.e. gap, chasm), a gap in a moun- 
tain of barony of Tirhugh, Co. Donegal, " 5 miles east of 
the town of Donegal," says O'Donovan; it is due N.E. 
of that town, and is called Barnesmore Gap. 

Bregmaig, 10 ; ds. between Dublin and Drogheda, and 
Moybolgue in east Meath, and Sliab Breg in Louth, and 
extending some distance beyond Kells ; but the text 
seems to show that it was south of Ath nGabla on the 
Boyne ; on Brug do Bregmaig, O'Duggan's Top. 
Poem, 14. 

Caisiul Muman, 24 ; ds. of Caisel; now Cashel. 

Casan Linne, 9; between Glenn Rige and A'th nGabla; 
now the river Lagan, Co. Down ; it was in the land of 
the Ulaid ; and Linn Duachaill, now Magheralin in 
N.W. of Co. Down, was on its banks. Written Cassan 
Linne (the path of the lake or water), Annals of Ulster, 
I. 584. 

Cell da-Lua, 32 ; Church of (St.) Lua, now Killaloe. 

Cenél Conaill, 40 ; descendants of Conall Gulban, son of 
Niall JNoigiallach, King of Ireland in the fourth century ; 
their chiefs were O'Muldorry and O'Cananán up 
to the thirteenth century, and the O'Donnells from 
the thirteenth century to 1608. 

Cenn Coradh, 32 ; " the head of the weir," at Killaloe, 
the palace of Cenn Coradh, demolished 1118, extended 
from the present Catholic church to the brow of the hill 
over the bridge (O'Don.) ; O'Don. prints coraidh as the 
genitive case, but it is Cend Corad in Cog. Gaedel re 


Clár Doire móir, 22 ; in Eile not far from Roscrea, and on 
the border of Muma and Laigin. 

Cóicead Conchobair, 6 ; tbe land of the Ulaid, or part of 
the present Ulster ; an cóiced .i. Cóiced Ulad, Annals 
of Ulster, III. 1181, I. 428. 

Conaill, A, gs. put often for Cenéil Conaill, the people 
of Tirconnell, as " Conall ocus Eogan," LB. 272c in 
the ace. sing. 

Cretsalaig, 33 ; asf. governed by mar ; now Cratloe, or 
Cratlagh, 4 miles N.W. of Limerick ; of old called the 
Cratlagh woods, which reflects " Fid na Cuan re a 
n-abar in Chretalach," of Silva Gad. 116 ; recte Chret- 

Déisi Muman, 23 ; Mag Feimin, which included the 
barony of east Iffa and OfTa in S.E. Tipperary, was 
part of the land of the Déisi. 

Dun Echdach, 8 ; now Dunaghy, a townland and parish 
on the banks of the Fregabail, or Ravel, in barony of 
Kilconway, Co. Antrim ; between Oenach Cros and 
Mag Rath ; the King of the Ulaid seems to have had a 
palace there. 

Eogain, A, gs. often put, as here, for Cenéil Eogain, the 
people of Tirone. In LB. 272c, "Conall ocus Eogan" 
= Cenél Conaill ocus Cenél nEogain. 

Flidais, 20 ; asf., a river near Belach Gabráin, or Gowran; 
it was in Ossory. 

Fochla: ind Fhochla, A; of the North, the north half of 
Ireland; the gen. sg. masc. 'ind Fhochlai' is in the 
An. of Ulster, I. 428 ; and Hennessy says it was the 
country of the Ui Néill. O'Don, p. 9 of the Circ. of 
Ireland, says it was in North Meath ; but O'Clery's 
Preface shows that it included Tirconnell and Tiro wen. 

Glenn Mama, 15, 16 ; our text shows that it was near 
Liamain, and that both were between Dublin and 
Ailenn which was about 5 miles S.E. of the town of 
Kildare. But where is Liamain ? In the Ann. of 
Ulster, I. 506, the word is Glean n mamma. See 
Liamain, infra. 


Glenn Bige, 9 ; between Mag Bath and Casán Linne, in 
Down ; the vale of the Newry river, which divides the 
the counties of Down and Armagh. 

Innsi Fail, gsf ., a name of Ireland. 

Laigin, 15 ; np., Leinstermen. 

Leth Cuinn, 32 ; " Conn's Half" ; it was separated from 
Mog's Half, or Leth Moga, by the Eiscir Biada, which 
stretched from High-street, Dublin, to Clarin Bridge, a 
little S.E. of the city of Galway. 

Liarhain, 15 ; our text shows that it was 1° near Glenn 
Mama, and 2° between Dublin and Ailenn (5 miles 
S.E. of the town of Kildare), and 3° at the distance of 
a day's march from each of them. I add four more 
items : 4° the Glenn Mama was a long distance from 
Dublin ; 5° it was beyond Ui Briuin Cualann, Ui 
Gabra, and Ui Donchada (probably S.W. of them) (see 
pp. 113, 111, of Cog. Gaedel fri Gallaib) ; 6° the nom. 
case is Liamain, LL. 317#; the gen. is Liamna : Cath 
Liamna, LL., in O'C's. Man. Mater. 492 ; 7° Dun 
Liamna is the same as Liamain, and was a fort of the 
Kings of Leinster (Silva Gad. I. 153, II. 479). 
These seven data, which I have not time to discuss 
here, may help to confirm or refute the statement of 
O'Donovan, O'Curry, and Hennessy, that Liamain is 
Dunlavin, Co. Wicklow. Could it not be Newcastle, 
12 miles S.W. of Dublin, called in old charters New- 
castle Leuan\ or Cnoc Lun, Cnoc-Lin, in parish of 
Tallaght, out towards Glenn na smól. 

Lice ingine Laidig, 41 ; dsf. north of Bearnusmore Gap, 
and a day's march beyond it, and on the road to 
Ailech ; it means the stone of Laidech's daughter ; 
between Bernasmór and Mag Glas, in Co. Donegal ; it 
is clearly in barony of Baphoe. 

Lochan na n-ech, 43 ; (the little lake of the horses) ; south 
of Ailech ; clearly in barony of Baphoe, Co. Donegal. 

Loch Biach, 35 ; now Loughrea, Co. Galway. 

Luimnech, 33 ; now Limerick ; originally a namejfor the 
Shannon, between Limerick, and the sea. 


Mag Adhar, 34 ; in townland of Toonagh, p. of Cloney, 
bar. of Upper Tullagh, Co. Clare ; a mound there over 
the stream Abhainn Ifrinn was the inauguration place 
of O'Brien. The gs of Adar is Adair. 

Mag Ai, 38 ; alias Machaire Connacht, stretches from 
Clonfree, near Strokestown, west to the bridge of 
Castlerea, and from Roscommon north to the Tur- 
loughs of Mantua, all in Co. Roscommon. 

Mag Airb, 22 ; nearly coextensive with the present barony 
of Cranagh, in N.W. of Co. Kilkenny; Grian Airb, 
now Greane, in this barony, is on the boundary of 
Ossory and Cashel dioceses. 

Mag n-Elta, 10; between Dublin and the Hill of Howth. 

Mag Feimin, 24 ; in S.E. Tipperary, stretched from the 
river Suir, northwards, to Knockgraffan, and from 
Cahir to the verge of the present Co. of Kilkenny ; it 
includes the whole barony of Iffa and OfTa, East. 

Maig Glas, 42 ; dsN., in Co. Donegal, south of Ailech 
and between it and Lecc ingine Laidig ; seems in the 
barony of Raphoe, Co. Donegal ; it could hardly be 
Mag n-Glas, alias Mag Múade, a plain near the river 
Moy, on which cf. LL. 127b, and Lee. 494«. 

Mag Line, 7 ; extended from Loch Neagh to near Carrig- 
fergus ; another definition of it is, that this plain was 
bounded on the north by the river Glenwherry, on the 
west by Shane's Castle, on the south by the Six-mile 
Water, on the east by Magheramorne. 

Mag Bath , 9 ; between D ún Echdach and Glenn Rige ; 
now Moira in barony of Lower Iveagh, Co. Down. 

Meada Seola, 35 ; ds., still so called, it is a conspicuous 
hill near Castlehacket, in barony of Clare, Co. Gal way 
(O'Don.) ; but, perhaps, the verse ran — Adaig duinn i 
Maig Seola, a plain mentioned in the Book of Armagh, 
and in the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, p. 96 : 
Domnach mór Maige Seólai. However, I find it 
simply Meada in O'Dubagán's Topogr. Poem., p. 68, 
where the plain of Ui Maine is said to extend from 
the Shannon to Meada. 


Oenach Cros, 7 ; east of Ailech, in Co. Antrim, near Mag 
Line, in barony and Co. of Antrim. 

Osraige, 20 ; the people who held the region which is 
now the diocese of Ossory. 

Rath Guaire, 38 ; dsf., seems a day's march north of Mag 
n-Ai, and in north Eoscommon, between Mag n-Ai and 
Srath an firéin ; I think, somewhere at the junction of 
Eoscommon, Sligo, and Leitrim; or Dun Guaire in 
Coill ua Fiachrach, in the present diocese of Kilmac- 
duagh, Co. Gal way. 

Sinainne, 33 ; gsf. of Sinann ; the Shannon. 

Sléib suidi ind rig, 34; dsN., " the mountain of the 
King's seat." In Silva Gad. 116, 332, it is called 
Sliab Suidi in rig and Sliab Uighi in rig ; in the Four 
Masters, Sliabh Oideada an rig (the mountain of the 
tragic death of the King). It is now called the Gloun- 
nagros or Cratloe Mountain (Glenn na gcros), in Clare, 
opposite the city of Limerick; and, though 0' Donovan 
said at p. 47 of the Circuit of Ireland that in 1841 the 
Irish name was "remembered by very few," it was 
still known in 1886, and so was the saying: Sliabh 
Aideda in rig, bliadain fé coirce as bliadain fé lin, 
shleev-wee-in-ree (so pronounced here), a year under 
oats and a year under flax. This expresses its barren- 

Going up the mountain and following the earthen 
fence which separates Delmege's land from Gloster's, 
you find about half-way up part of the fence made of 
stones ; look back towards Limerick, and about four 
yards on your right-hand on the Delmege side is the 
site of King Crimthann's grave, still called "Leacht 
Creithir," and a field or two further to the right a 
beautiful rath. The stones of Crimthann's Carnn were 
taken away (or perhaps broken) about the year 1840 to 
make part of a boundary fence. Old people who lived 
on opposite sides of the mountain told me, independently, 
that they used to gather and play about the carnn when 
coming from school eirc. 1835. They said Leacht 
Creithir meant " Grave of the Cup " (of poison given 
to the king by his sister in the year 878). Creithir is 


the gen. case of creither, gl. airdig in O'Davoren, 
pp. 147, 62 ; it is given as the nom. fern, by O'Reilly, 
wrongly as I think. The grave is called Fert Crim- 
thainn, Fertán Crimthainn. The graves of the father 
and the nurse of this monarch of Ireland are also on 
that mountain. See the story in Four Masters, I. 126, 
and Silva Gad. I. 332. As I fancy I alone now know 
where Fert Crimthainn is, I have written so much lest 
we forget. 

Srath an 'firéin, 38 ; (the meadow of the just man), north 
of Mag nAi in Roscommon, and north of Rath Guaire, 
and south of Ballyshannon, and between Rath Guairi 
and Súil Daiih. These places are north of Co. Ros- 
common and on the borders of Sligo and Leitrim. 

Súil Dairh, 39; (ox's eye), ds. ; ("súil means topographi- 
cally a whirlpool in a river," O'Don.) ; it is south of 
Ballyshannon, and clearly in some river of north Sligo 
and Leitrim. Evidently their passage of some ford was 
disputed stubbornly to prevent them from going back 
into Tir Conaill and Tir Eogain. O'Don. says it is now 
unknown ; but the context shows approximately where 
it was. 

Tiprata Britain, 22 ; now Tubbridbritain, in barony of 
Crannagh, Co. Kilkenny ; there is a Tubbrid Castle 
near it : nom. tipra, a well ; g. tiprat ; d. tiprait ; pi. 
tiprata ; but there is a gs. tiprata in Félire of Gorman, 
p. 204, last line, as from a nom. tiprait. 

Ui Cairbri, 30 ; " Machaire gCairpri '' extended from 
the Shannon to Kilmallock on both sides of the Maigue 
river ; the barony of Coshma was in it. 

Ui Cheinnselaig, 15 ; the people of the present diocese of 

Ulad, 8, gp. ; np. Ulaid ; they held the present 
counties of Antrim and Down ; " the Dal-Araide 
were the true Ulaid of Emain," Book of Fenagh p. 30. 



[A refers to O'Clery's Preface ; B to the extract from 
Cath Muige Rath ; the numbers to the stanzas ; Ho. to my 
Outlines of Old Irish Grammar, Ht. to my Todd Lectures, 
vol. v. The cases, numbers, genders are marked by their 
initials, nsf . = nom. sg. fern. ; N = neuter.] 

acca, 25 ; con-acca, 3 sg. perf., dependent form of adchiu, 
Ho. 37, 43. 

adaig, nsf., once in full in our text of the Bk. of Genea- 
logies, 28 times contracted : adaig duinn, * a night to 
us ' = ' we were a night '; it seems to be nom. as also in 
feótar ann ind adaig sin, ' they slept there that night ' 
(Wind. Diet.) ; n. adaig, g. aidche, da. aidchi, also 
da. adaig, Ht. 113. 

ail, 48 ; O'Don. transl. according to the pleasure of the 
race of Niall ; rop áil dó = duthracair and voluit, Ht. 
72, 114; duine ré nach áill, * one who is unwilling,' 
Donlevy, 96. 

aingit, B; in Ht. 12 andgaid 'impius,' angbaid 'saevus'; 
aingid * malicious,' O'Brien's Diet. : angbaid = cruaid, 

aireag, B; O.-I. airec, gl. ' inventio, finding, (plan).' 

aireochad, B, he would find, sec. fut. of airigim ; ' would 
betray,' O'Don. 

aisccid, ind-aisccid, 51 ; aisgid 'freely, gratis,' O'Brien; 
adverbs are formed by prefixing in, ind, int to adjectives 
and nouns, Ho. 26; O'D. read ind ardarc 'gratui- 
tously,' but that means ' conspicuously,' from airdirc, gl. 
' conspicuus,' which would give an adverb ind-airdirc 
= t conspicue.' 

aittire, A, ' hostage '; also aitire. 

amnas, 14; ' tight,' O'D. ; but cf. geimal amnas of 14 
with geimel garb of 18 and cath croda amnas of O'Brien's 
Diet. : it means ' rough ' figuratively, if not literally, 
and is applied to persons and things ; ór-cháin amnas 
'golden-fair, wonderful' (sunrise), Silv. I. 56. 


andar lenn, 31 ; also indar linn, dar linn ; in Ht. 84 
anndar liumm = 'sentio.' 

as : as a toig, 56 ; perhaps for dia toig after buidech. 

assa, 28, easier ; O.-I. assu ' facilius.' 

atbertsat, A ; 3 pi. pret. of atbiur, ' I say.' 

atbaid, A ; a gcionn atbaid, ' in process of time/ 2 Chron. 
21 ; re hathaid, Stokes' Ac. na senorach, 1. 3717. 

beóda, 35, ' lively'; also ' brave,' Numbers xiii. 20. 

bearad: ni bearad-som, A ' be was not to go,' O'D. ; recte, 
' be was not taken, or be would or did not take (him).' 

blaid : co mblaid, 27, 42, 51 ; co mbloid, 63 ; co mblad, 
58; O'D.'s. co mblad of 27 should be co mblaid; 
common in verses and means ' gloriously, with fame.' 

breac, 36, refers to the various colours of the various 
ranks of warriors ; brecc, gl. ' tinctus.' 

brodchú, A * hound,' 'furious hound,' O'Don.; from 
brod ' a goad ' or ' brod ' (dat. bruid) ' captivity ' (?) ; 
either would make a hound ' furious.' 

buaid, 27; 'to us it was a victory,' O'Don.; (lit. 'its 
victory or advantage ') ; but ' was ' would require ro bái 
or robói in the line, not robad sec. future, which means 
4 would be.' Buaid, an old neuter, has an elastic 
meaning, v. g. buaid laech = < principes digni,' Ht. 24. 

buidech, 47, 56 ; n. pi. buidich, gl. ' contenti,' Wb. 29 b 17 ; 
it takes de after it : do bí sé róbuideach diómsa, he was 
very thankful to me, O'Begley's Diet. 636 ; before 
nouns do is used as at 47 ; budi, gp. ' gratiarum,' 
thanks, Ht. 83 ; but treud' búide "| treud thrócaire, 
through thy kindness (or clemency) and mercy (Parrthas 
an Anma, 357) : "6 a ró cheannsa, ó a róbhuigh 
(= robuidech), ó á mhilis Mhaighdean Muire na trócaire 
= clemens, o pia, o dulcis Virgo Maria," Staple ton's 
Lat. Hib. Catechism, of year 1639, p. 50. 

builid, 36 ; cf. bradán builid, a beautiful salmon, C. M. 
Zona. xx. 


caidlide, coidlige, A, B, made of hide or skin; gan chodail, 
.i. gan chroicionn, Ht. 14; cadal 'hide,' O'Brien; 
coidlige here (and also in LB 213 b) should be coidlide, 
of. Ho. 34; O'Don. does not translate the word; 
ga caidlide was a javelin with a leather head and per- 
haps with a thong. 

caissearnaig, 31; asf., 'strains/ O'Don., who adds 'we 
danced awhile.' I think it is formed from casair, ' hail/ 
just as gragarnaig, croaking (Silva Gad. 56) is formed 
*from gragar (= grág, croaking, of O'Brien) ; gragar = 
cliogar. Cessarnach, means the pelting of hail (nsf . in 
chessair, g. na cessari Ht. 99) ; as. casir in Wind. 

cass, 32, ' strong/ O'Don., as he renders corra, 'strong ' ; 
it means curled, curly ; in O'Reilly cas = steep, which 
may be the meaning here. 

cenmothat, A, except, [besides, used with plurals or 
collectives, cenmotha is with singulars, though also with 
plurals: cenmot(h)á mná, ocus maic "| ingena, excepto 
matrum puerorumque numero, Ht. Ill ; in this passage 
maic shows that the word is followed by the nom. 

cétt, 40, 51 ; proind cétt = dinner of hundreds, should be, 
perhaps, proind céit, a dinner of a hundred. 

cined, 64, asm. in full; for which O'Don. prints cinél; 
gs. cineda ; but gs. ' an chine daonna, generis humani/ 
Stapleton, 19. 

clised, B. ' was to spring/ O'Don. ; clisim (I jump, 
O'Brien) has 3 sg. consuetudinal tense, alias secondary 
present, chlised or no-chlised, he used to jump or 
would jump. 

cloisin, 13, ' with liberality/ O'Don. ; lit. towards 
hearing, that is, I think, a thing to be heard or worth 

coccur, 16, dsm., whispering, conspiring, but cf. "do 
chogair aige féin gan dol," he determined not to go, 
. Mag Lena, p. 26. 


cochaill, 17, 30, npm. ; cochla, ap. 26 ; cloaks, O'Don., 
coats (Mageoghan, in Ann. of Clonmacnois) ; hood 
(0' Grady's Sil. Gad. 44) ; St. Brigit < focherd a cochall 
super radium solis,' (Ht. 82.) threw her mantle over a 
ray of the sun. 

coimgniu, A., recte coimgni ; drechta coimgni, gl. senchas, 
O'Dav., i.e. tales of history. 

coinnmead, 55, as., billeting ; ns. coindmed mis, a 
month's billeting ; doronad coindmed na filed, the 
poets were billeted, Stokes' Amra Choluim-cille, 42, 
44 ; do coinnmead a rhuinter ar thuathaibh Teabtha, 
his people were quartered on the territories of T., 
C. M. Lena, 12. 

coistecht risin, 31, listening to the ; also ic coistecht, 
audiens, Ht. 37 ; the first pres. indie, coistim, I have 
not met. 

cómláin, 29; i stout,' O'Don., lit. perfect, full. 

con-, 25, (con-acca), so that, and. 

conciuchail in coin, B. ; he * clef t the hound,' O'D. ; 
cf. con-cuiclaistid, ' that he would be slain,' Cath 
Maige Rath 144. It seems a redupl. perfect, for con- 
cechail, or con-cechlaid ; in Munster diúr, spriuchad 
for dear, spréachad. From ciuclaistid I think both 
come from cladaim ' suffodio,' stab ; cf. ro-chlaid, 
fodivit, Ht. 29 ; ro cechladatar, gl. suffodérunt, Wb. 
ba, and claissi or claisti, gl. defossi, Ml. 24c ; and for 
the form, * rot-chechladar,' who shall hear thee, Wb. 
28^, and O'Clery's conciuchlathar, it shall be heard. 

corad, 32, gs., a weir, dam; O'D.'s choraid is wrong; 
in B. of Fenagh, 220, i CindChorad ; ns. cora .1. stopus 
uisgi, a dam (O'Begley). 

co-rop, corab, 64, 65, pres. subj. used optatively. 

corra: cochaill corra croicinn, 17, 30, 'strong,' O'Don.; 
cf. cuarán corra coidlige, (two) shoes . . , LB. 213# ; 
corr-chíchech, LL. 210? ; where, as generally it means 
'round'; Hennessy in Bk. of Fenagh, 322, makes 

corr-sleg == sharp spear. 


crí : i gcrí, in body, alive ; not translated by O'Don., 
who renders the line 'with thee no one can vie'; 
Crist conic mochrí, LL. 307 a 1 ; cli also means body ; 
cf. Cath. Kuis na Kig, 223 ; J. Mac Neill's Three 
Middle-Irish Poems, 536, 534. 

crocoinn, 17, 30 ; recte croicinn, hide, gsm. 

cuairt, 23, 'tribute,' O'Don.; lit. visit, and so 'they 
offered cuairt = they received kindly the visit ; it seems 
here nearly = coindrhead. 

cuiri, 8 ; dsm. (for older cuiriu), as doidgeal debthach, 
show ; the nomin. ban-chuire (women-folk) is in Bk. 
of Armagh, in the Glossarium of which I wrongly 
marked it feminine. 

dail, 43, 55, 62 : Dubdaire dail, Dub dail dag Doire, a 
Dhonnchad dail; 'black-haired,' 'the gen. case of dael 
a chafer,' O'D. ; perhaps so, and cf. dail-dath, 
chafer-colour in Wind. Diet. ; out is not dail, for dil, 
dear, gratus, as thaige, for thige, in 44? and as Dub- 
doire dil in 57 ? Chafer-black or dark-haired would not 
be complimentary to an Irish queen or king ; and in 
43, 62, the metre would not bear 'dil.' 

déide, A, a neuter noun means ' two things.' 

déin, 39, 47, gs. of dian, np. diana, 25 ; gl. celeres, Ml. 
48i? ; a secondary meaning seems to be in Dé déin (of 
the Mighty God) 47, dian-ainm, great or mighty name, 
Ml. April 22. 

ro-deled, 52 ; ' has surpassed,' O'D. ; as deillim 
(O'Brien and O'Reilly) means separate, ro-deled is 
' was separated or distinguished from,' i.e. surpassed ; 
ro-delig would do as well, or better, as we have 
examples of that word. Its primary sense is ro-delig 
ind ingen riu aliter do cheileabair dóib (Stokes' Acallam 
na Senórach, 307) deligedar, distingues, Z. 332. 

dernar : co ndearnar, 45, subj. pres. 1 sg., dependent 
and deponent form of dogniu, I do. 

dí-móra, 25, very great ; 'tremendous,' O'Don. 


dleagam, A, ní dleagam é, ' it behoves us not,' O'Don. ; 

it is 1 pi. conjunct, form of dligim ; after ni we get 

dlegam and not dligmid or dligmit. 
do, 57, is nearly always for de before nouns in such cases, 
dóidgeal, 8 ; dóitib, gl. manibus, Gildas Lorica. 
don-ruachtar, 20, 23, ' were sent,' ' waited on us,' 

O'Don. ; recte reached us (n being the infixed pron. us); 

it is for donruachtatar ; cf. cor-roachtatar Ferti, donee 

pervenerunt ad Ferti, Ht. 5, and 3 sg. pret. roacht, 

doruacht, pervenit, Ht. 50, 58, rocht, Cath K. na Kig, 

48. doruachtatar, p. 64 of E. 3. 5, T. C. D. 
•doroegda, con-doroegda lais, A, i so that he selected/ 

O'D. ; but he chose = doroega, which would suit if 

lais were absent ; con-doroegda seems a perf . pass. 3 pi. ; 

the secondary pres. being no thogtha, A infra ; rogu, 

' electio,' "Wb. 4c, 9a ; rogda, ' chosen,' is past part, or 

participial adjective, 
do-ucc co dtucc, A, took, brought ; 3 sg. pret., do ucctha, 

A ; were brought or given, perfect pass. pi. of tuccaim. 
dun passim, in which I have inserted (i) or (in), is common 

in Irish mss. 
dusf uargaib, A, pret. 3 sg. i he erected,' O'D. ; s is 

infixed pron. 3rd person = it, him, her ; tuarcaib, 

' elevavit,' and also * surrexit ' and ' atracht,' raised and 

rose, Ht. 140. 
duthraccair, 11, ' she came forth,' O'Don.; recte, she 

(ardently) desired, wished; duthraccar-sa, gl. optavi, 

duthracht, votum, Ml. 32£ ; in Ht. 72, 87, duthracair 

= voluit concupivit. 
earsainn araill, A ; ursainn ele, B ; araill, a neuter adject., 

does not agree with dsf. earsainn. 
edneach, 49, dsm. ' eidneach, festive,' O'D. ; but cf. 

édnech, eidneoh, ivied (Félires of Oingus and Gorman 

indexes) full of ivy, O'Brien, 
egfind, 46, for fegfind (?). 
éicces, a poet, 1 : gsm. Onchú mac ind éiccis, 0. son of 

the sage, Félires, 8 Feb. ; éiceas, in Cormac's Gloss., 

points to one skilled in poetry. 


engnuma, B, gs. of engnam, dexterity at arms, O'Brien; 
here it means courage. 

erraid, 21, dress ; recte errid, npm. errid (Ross na Rig, 
229), ns. erred, LL. 76£. 

ettruiccid, 27, 'oppose not,' O'D., imperat. 2 pi.; it 
seems a denominative of ét, jealousy, aemulatio. 

rofear, A, 'he remained,' O'D. ; but I have not met it 
with that meaning ; recte ro-fear, past or spent (three 
nights) ; its meanings vary with the word that follow : — 
rofer (banne, fáilti, in snechta, torad, conflicht), pluit, 
salutavit, induxit nivem, abundavit, conflixit, Ht. 85, 
108, 9, 72, 8 ; rofer (cath, an cenach, frassa) fought a 
battle, held a meeting, it rained ; oc ferthain, raining, 
Wind. Diet. 

ferglonn, B ; in Ir. Texte IV. 1, p. 406, ferglond frithir 
is quoted from Laud. 615 ; but it is not a gloss on 
frithir = * sore ' ; perhaps ferglonn ferchon (cf . ainder 
mná, Sil. Gad. 47) = a fury of a male hound ; ferg-lonn, 
or fer-glonn, man-wounding from glond .i. guin duine, 
O'Dav. 94. 

fiach fola, 12, debt of blood, which the Danes paid for 
killing Muirchertach's father, Niall Glundub. 

fichet, 40, is gen. sg. idiomatic here. 

fidchille, 26, chess ; gsf . na fidchille, LL. 249«. 

foilcsiom, 19 ; nir foilcsiom, ' we did not wet our fine 
hair,' O'D. ; gl. humecto, lavo. 

fón, 54 ; one ms. has fónd. 

forgum, gs. forgaim, B., a thrust, blow ; also g. forgama. 

for rith, 12 ; * together with,' O'D. ; rather forrith or 

forith, or f of rith, 3 sg. pret. pass., w r as got, it serves as 

pret. pass, of fuair ; the 3 pi. fófritha, foritha, inventi 

sunt, Ht. 17, 86. 
fo-uarastar, 29, he got, deponent form for fofuair, 

fofuair, invenit, Ht. 3, 51, 91. 

frithailim, 45, asf . of the verbal noun frithailem ; Wind. 
Diet, gives ds. frithalaim, but ace. frithailem, wrongly, 



as I think it is declined like mathem: asf. mathim, 
Felire, May 14. O'D.'s if ritbailim should read a frithai- 
lim ; no-friothailte, 44, secondary pres. pass. ; ro-frio- 
thailti, 48, perf. pass. 3 pi., agreeing with the collective 
rigrad ; cf. cuir do chrios ort agus friotháil ormsa (Co. 
Clare New Testament) . . agus frítheóil damsa (Irish 
Bible), crioslaich thú féin agus fritheil dhomsa (Catholic 
Scottish N. Test.) = praecinge te et ministra mihi, 
Luke xvii. 8. 

gabthar, 63, imperat. or pres. subj. 3 sg., may be pos- 
sessed or taken ; geb : riot nocha geb neach i gcri, 61, 
* with thee no one can vie,' O'D. ; rather, against thee 
no one alive goes (or shall go) against thee, resist thee ; 
geib is conjunct, form (with nocho) for ' geibid,' goes ; 
cf. gabáil fri gliaid, to resist fighting, Gorman's 
Martyr. 204 ; -geb is the present and -géb, the future 
for the ordinary forms, nocha (geba, géba), see Ho. 
p. 2 ; ní congébthar friu, they will not be withstood, 
J. MacNeill's Mid-Irish Poems, 550. 

gaiscced, 46, i ngaiscced grinn, ' of distinguished valour,' 
O'Don., perhaps, in fine armour or equipment. 

gall-groideach, 1, ' gall groideach, stone built,' O'D., 
who renders móirgroidig, 4, by ' of the great steeds'; 
gallgroidech (better gallgraigech, an adjective from 
graig, pi. na graigi, ' equi,' Ht. 7), means of foreign 
horses ; gall-graig = foreign stud or lot of horses. 

1, apm. of giall ; np. géill, 64; a ngéillsi, A 
should be na géill-si or ár ngéill-ni. 

giallnus, A ; dsm., also giallacht, hostageship. 

gille, 9 ; deggille, ' good light,' recte gile, brightness. 

giolla, gille, 43, 'page,' O'D. ; rather a gilla turusa, or 
cursor ; ns. gilla, d. gillu, vocative a gille, puer, 
servus, Ht. 8, 45, 65. 

gléire, A ; gléire gaisceadach, ' chosen champions,' 
O'Don. ; gléire laech, choice hero, O'Brien ; multitude 
of champions : gléire .i. iomad, O'Clery ; gléire descad, 
Boss na Big, p. 14. 

no-glomad, A; 'he flew at,' O'D. ; cruadgloim, 'cruel 


onset,' O'Don. ; it is 3 sg. secondary pres. of glorhaim 
(which is not in dictionaries). Cf. glamaim, devour, 
eat greedily, O'Brien ; gloim, destruction, glámaim, 
seize eagerly, O'Reilly ; glarh, hunger, Cath M. Rath, 
104 ; the word is in LB. 1625. Ro-glom la rig-Dia 
7 athert ' Is duine fírén in duine ut,' which seems to 
mean, "he cried to (or by) the Great God and said 
'that man is a just man.'" If so, the word in our 
text may mean 'the dog barked.' 

gruig, 50; asf. of grug ; 'hungry look,' O'D.; grúig, 
' a frown,' gs. grúigi, ' displeasure,' Sil. Gad., 46, 
45; ns. grug, ' a wrinkle,' O'Brien; O'Don. renders : 
' three score vats of curds which banished the hungry 
look of the army,' rather . . . many were they from 
whom they scattered (' smoothed away ') a wrinkle. 

gruitt, 50, dsf. ; 'gruid, curds,' O'D.; O'Brien has 
gruid, malt, which would " smoothe away a wrinkle 
(gruig) from the brow of care," better than curds ; 
grudaire, a brewer, distiller, Coneys and O'Reilly ; 
besides (gruth), gs. grotha = ' caseorum,' of cheese, 
Ht. 49; gruith cáise, 'cheese curds,' O'Begley ; the 
co midh ocus gruit of Aisl. Meic Congl., p. 127, means, 
I think, with mead and malt, rather than ' curds,' as 
in K. Meyer's Glossary ; its declension and final t, 
and tt, distinguish it from cruth, cheese, curds. 

iarair, 15, ds. ; ar ar n-iarair, 'in pursuit behind us,' 
O'D. ; six other examples are : ' co tolaid a máthair for 
a iarair,' donee mater eius quaerere eum pervenit f Ht. 
37. Co mbói in tarb for iarrair ; for seachrán 7 iarrair, 
LB. 201a; Wind. Diet, gives three other instances; 
in all it means quaerens (as in quserens me sedisti 
lassus), or as Stokes renders in Trip. Life, 63, ' a-seek- 
ing.' Dr. Atkinson, in his Pass, and Horn. Gloss., 
queries the meaning ' on the search ? ' Windisch says 
it has the same meanings as iarraid ; not so, as oc 
iarair air is not found while oc iarraid forru is, meaning 
asking him ; for iarair is in search of, for lorg, in pur- 
suit of. 

imbirt, 26, dsf. of imbert, g. imberta. 

in, 58 : in cech mboin, one ms. has ind ; ' for every cow,' 
O'D. ; it seems a preposition in an idiomatic sense : — 


asioc a gcuid na coiharsan ; mar geall ar cháirde ann a 
luach, on account of giving time for the payment of the 
price thereof ; an é nach bfágann sé maithearhnas ann a 
pheacaidib ? f aoisidin do deunarh ionn a pheacaidib, 
does he not obtain forgiveness of his sins ? to make a 
confession of his sins, Donlevy, 104, 268, 266 ; tuirse 
chroide 'na pheacaduib, faoiside glan isna peacaduib 
agus lóirgníorh do deunarh ionnta, hearty sorrow for 
his sins, to make a clear confession of his sins and to 
make satisfaction for them, Parrthas an Anma, 199 ; 
O'Grady's Diarmait and Gr. G6, 68, 124 : no go 
dtugaid díogail (éiric) darhsa ann gach ni, satisfaction 
for every thing. Cf. ad denarios 50 in singulos modios 
annona pervenit, ' corn had reached to 50 denarii for 
every bushel.' 

isrugad, B, for d'fisrugad; * to test,' O'D. ; d'fis, a few 
lines further, has nearly the same meaning * to ascer- 
tain' ; fiosrach, inquisitive, O'Brien. 

láim chlí, A, ds. or acf. 

ni rolamratar, rolamdatar taeb frinn, 16, i they durst 
not approach us/ O'D. ; pret. 3 pi. ; better, ni rolam- 
satar, as in Wind. Diet. ; rolaumur, gl. audeo, Z. ? 

rolas, 43, * was despatched,' O'D.; that would be rolad, 
rolaad, * rolaud dar cend, dirutum est,' Ht. 95 ; it means 
I despatched (= dal-laus, 2 sg. rolais, Wind. Diet.) ; 
1st pi. roláisem, 34 ; nolad muinter deigrig, 26, 'as 
became the subjects of a good king,' O'D. ; recte as 
the people of a good king should or would put off 
(their cloaks) ; nolad is second, pres. 3 sg. ; cf . nolafed, 
etc., Ht. 131. 

lionrhar, 18, refers to áirdríg, and not to Laigen as in 
O'D., and means abounding in subjects, etc. ; saidbrios 
7 linmaire Alexandir, LB. 213a. 

lóin, 12; gsm. ; O'D.'s 'from an abundant store' would 
make it dsf . 

luachair, 43, asf., into the (place of) rushes, to cut them 
and cover the floors, etc., with them. 


mag, 59 : for mag = amach here, I think, rather than 
< on the plain ' of O'D. 

romaoite, 24, ' was inflicted,' O'D. ; perf . pass, of maoiclim ; 
rather ' was threatened ' because the mórphúdar was 
not inflicted : cf. * romáidi, romoidi, minando dicebat, 
minabatur, Ht. 56 : ani romoidi Foilge, quod Folge 
minabatur ; or ( was boasted of ' when the Cashel men 
wanted to fight, from moidim, gl. glorior. 

mar, 54, governs ace. mnaoi. 

meann, 51 ; * miod meann, choice mead,' O'D. ; but cf. 
gs. minn,gl. limpidi, Sg. 112. 

meabail, 40, asf. ns. mebul, ignominia, Ht. 8. 
meing, 40, asf. ' treachery,' O'D. ; lé meanguib nó lé 
cluanaib, by drifts or foul practices, Donlevy, 98. 

romid, B, pret. 3 sg ; the old verb is midiur, puto, judico ; 
perf. dep. 3 sg. romidair, i romidir, ei visum est,' Ht. 4. 

moirthimchell Erenn uile of Title-page ; cf . stanza 2, and 
tugais timchiollad flatha for Erinn, Cath M. Lena, 102. 

monar n-, 59, it seems ns., and if so, the n shows it is 
neuter ; it is a common cheville or stopgap. 

ro-muaidnig, B, here romid ■] ro muaidnig = romidir .i. 
romenamnaig, Trip. Life, ii., 654, Index; or may be 
= muadaim, to form, shape, of O'Brien's Diet. 

muc, 49 ; muc, bó, dam are gp. after the pi. nouns 
fichit, cét. 

muig, 31 ; ceol agoinn i moig 'sa toig, ' music we had 
on the plain and in our tents,' O'D. ; but 30 says 
6 our only shelter were our leather cloaks.' They may 
have made tents with their cloaks, or i moig sa toig 
may mean galore ; cf. faoi deiread 'tiar 'tall, at long last. 

neirhnig, 46, gsm., ' warlike,' O'D., lit. venomous ; but 
it means virulentus and violentus. 

nin, 16 ; O'Don's. nin is a mistake for ni. 

nochon, 56, not : nochon nfearr, other forms are noco 
nfearr, ni co nfearr; no co n-err in ben, the woman is 
not better, ferr, Ir. Texte, i. 223. 


occlach, 56 ; O'D. translates : O'Dubdaire it is not better 
that any other youth than myself should be thankful ; 
oclsech, juvenis, g. óclaig, plebei, gsf . óclaigi, juvenis, 
ns. óclach, miles, Ht. 134. So óclach may be nsf., and 
the meaning, ' Dubdaire — not better is other genial young 
lady ' than she is, vide buidech. 

prím-istad, B, chief treasure-house (see Ross na Rig, 
144, 204) ; Naorh-iostad ro-naorhtha, Holy of Holies, 
Heb. 9 (12, 25), np. istoda. 

ro-ort, B, he slew, T- pret. of orcaim, see orcain, occisio, 
Ht. 134. 

ráth, 58 ; ba ráth, a ' good return,' O'D. ; rather ' it was 
a grace or favour' ; ráth, meritum, donum (divinum), 
Ht. 134 ; errad gan rath, trash, O'Begley ; Eogan mor 
fa mór a rath, C. M. Lena, 8. 

read, 10, as ; frost, O'D. ; reud, gl. gelu, pruina. 

riograd, 46, nsf. ; rigraid, dsf. 20, a collective, i.e. kings ; 
O'D. is all wrong about the forms of this word: nsf. 
ind rigrad, LU. 51, col. 1 ; at 51 one MS. has 
ón Higraid, which may mean from the king and 

ro-bad, 27, ' it was,' O'D.; it is the secondary, fut. 'it 
were,' ' would be ' ; recte ro-ba, pret. 3 sg. 

sithlad, 31, ' shaking,' O'D. ; perhaps * it seemed to us 
there was a heavy thunder by the rattling of the hard 
cloaks ' ; this would be supported by * crebat ' (for 
crepat), gl. sithlaid, of Lib. Hymnor. i., p. 76, note 62 ; 
and sithlad = to crepare or crepitus, crash of thunder. 
The meaning of filtering, ' crebrare, cribrare,' does not 
suit here, and I think the Irish glossarist meant crepat ; 
siothlógad, to strain, of O'Begley, 625, may come from 
sithal, a bucket (or Latin colum). 

snáthiu, A ; ap. from snáthe, ds. snáthiu, gl. filum, 
Sg. 54«. 

sniorh, 34, as ; ' anxiety,' O'D. ; ns. snim, sollicitudo, 
Ht. 45. 


sút: as-sút duit, 60; 'here are for thee,' O'D.; recte 
ac-sút(?) ; cf. Ag sud do máthair -j na ba, ecce offero 
tibi matrem tuam et vaccas, Ht. 70. 

tairgetar, 23, 'were offered,' O'D., recte they offered, 
cf. tairgid, offert, Ht. 107. 

tardat : ni thardat, 14, is the negative form of do-ratad, 36 ; 
cf. Ho. p. 38. 

torcratar, A., 'were slain,' O'D. ; recte they fell (by him) ; 
torchair, cecidit, Ht. 139. 

ro-thrasccair, 39 ; O'D. has ' we were not defeated, 
through the valour with which we fought ' ; ro 
thrasccair, = he overthrew ; recte rotrascrad (?), the pret. 

trénlámaig, B, gsm., lit. strong -shooting ; ' guna do 
lárhach, to shoot off a gun, O'Begley ; in Irish Bible 
caitherh is generally used for shooting ; chum lámaig as 
boga, to shoot with a bow ; do chaitheadar an lucht 
lárhaig, the shooters shot, 1 Chron. v. ; 2 Sam. xi. 

tréisi, 47, dsf. ' sovereignty,' O'D. ; it is the noun (also 

the comparative) of trén, strong, 
tuarccabtha, 25, ' were arrayed against us, 7 O'D. ; recte 

were raised, perf. pass. pi. cf. tuarcaib elevavit surrexit, 

Ht. 140. ^ 
ro-tuairccthi, 49, * were slaughtered,' O'D. ; perf. pass. 

3 pi., tuaircim, I strike or strike down ; the verbal noun 

is tuarcon = do-fo-orcon ; con-do-fo-orcon becomes 

comthuarcon, and im -do-fo-orcon = imthuarcon, cf. 

Ho. 34, and ro-ort, he slew, supra. 
úa, 56, £ descendant,' O'D., applied to a woman it looks 

odd ; recte ni (?) . 
úair, 22, cold, gsm. agreeing with Airb ; 'cold Mag 

Airbh,' O'D. 
uarastar, B., for fuarastar and fo-uarastar, 29. 
úath, 15 ; uathad of O'D. makes the line too long ; the pi. 

of it is uathe, uaithi, pauca, pauci, Ht. 140. 

uo, 11 : nir-uo, ciar-uo = nirbo, ciarbo, pret. 3 sg. depen- 
dent forms. 




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